It is important to submit valid and proper documents while applying for a job. This is the first step to make the first impression for the employer to be interested in the candidate and invite for an interview. Electronic address has an important role in this matter. 

When applying for a job, you need a presentable electronic address which should include your first and second names. For example, an address as Mrutik is unacceptable.

The presentation of the motivation letter is assessed positively by the majority of employers. The motivation letter should briefly state why you are interested in that particular job and highlight your skills which, according to you, are important for the given position.

To get the employer’s interest, it is important to present an impressive and reliable resume. It should be concise and clear, without any redundant information and with a page limit of 1-2. It is incorrect to put “CV” or “Resume” on the first line of the resume. Only the first and second names should be put in the first line.

This section includes the electronic address and the telephone number.

The narration of this section should start in reverse order, first mentioning your current or latest job, then – those preceding it. The dates for each position must be mentioned as well. The name of the company, your position as well as you responsibilities and achievements gained in that position must be mentioned. The data can be summarized in the given table.


Education must also be mentioned in reverse order. You can omit the information about the school you attended if you have higher education. Mention the admission and graduation dates, the name of the educational institution, the faculty, and the department.

In the end mention your language proficiency and other skills if they are important for the position you apply for and if they meet the job requirements of the employer.

If the employer does not specify about the photo in the requirements, there is no need to attach a photo to your resume. In case the employer does, you must present a clear and decent photo of you.


You should always keep in mind that the aim of the resume is to draw attention.


The rapid changes of economic processes and diverse technologies significantly alter the challenges of labor and education markets. Taking into consideration the development tendencies in the fields of science, information and high technologies and other spheres as well as the opportunities and limitations on the one side, and the labor market changes and results of advancement on the other side, the role of the human capital is particularly being capitalized in functioning the mechanisms of knowledge-based economy. In this context the following distinctive peculiarities of knowledge-based economy should be emphasized – the index of economic freedom, developed civil society, competitiveness, information and knowledge revolution, etc.

The formation and development of professional competences and skills through formal and non-formal education are directed to the assurance and enhancement of the individual’s competitiveness in the labor market. In 2006 the Council of the European Union developed a framework of core competences which presents all the main competences which are necessary for ensuring individual development, inclusion and employment, civil activeness, active and participatory lifestyle. In 2018 the EU Council reviewed the same framework of competences defined in 2006 and proposed a new one.

The framework of competences and the descriptors are as follows.

European Main Competences 2006 European Main Competences 2018 Descriptors 2018
  1 Communication in the Native Language   Literacy Ability to express and comment on own thoughts, feelings and viewpoints orally and in a written form; to freely comment on cultural and social events in education and learning, in working activity and interpersonal relations.
2 Communication in the Foreign Language Plurilingualism  Ability to express and comment on own thoughts, feelings and viewpoints orally and in a written form; to freely comment on cultural and social events in education and learning, in working activity and interpersonal relations.
3 Literacy in Mathematics, Basic Competences in Science and Technologies Literacy in Mathematics, Basic Competences in Science and Technologies Application of mathematical thinking in different life situations aimed at solution of diverse problems. The competences in the spheres of science, technologies and engineering assume the application of knowledge and methods which reveal the nature and the world. The existence of knowledge in Mathematics assume the application of basic mathematical operations in work environment, at home; as well as assessment of arguments and probabilities. One must have a mathematical (logical) thinking.
4 Competency in Digital Technologies Competency in Digital Technologies The application of information technologies (ITs) in communication, work or professional activity; the ability to apply digital technologies involve main skills of IT application (e.g. how to use computers for getting, assessing and exchanging information, as well as application of internet).
5   Learn how to Learn Personal and social competence; learn how to learn Self-education – to independently organize and implement education (both individually and in groups) in compliance with one’s own needs, competences and opportunities. It promotes the planning and management of one’s career path; learn how to find and efficiently use information.
6     Social and Civil Competences Civil Competence The active involvement and participation of the individual in the civil life; in this context the main skills are as follows: establishment of constructive relations in different societies, tolerance, ability to accept others’ viewpoints, empathy, conducting negotiations, knowledge of human rights and obligations, differences between one’s own and other countries, tolerance towards cultural, political and religious standpoints and values of different nations, cultural awareness.
7   Initiative and Entrepreneurship  Entrepreneurial Competence Efficient realization of one’s ideas, creative activity, innovation and risk.
  8 Cultural Awareness and Expression Cultural Awareness and Expression Knowledge of national and international cultural heritage. It is also important to be aware of modern cultural values.
The above mentioned 8 core competences are important for everyone as far as they make the person more competitive in the labor market.